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Chemical Drain Cleaners Roebic K-67 - Industrial Drain Cleaner

In many areas of the country many root killer ingredients and copper sulphate are not legal to put into your drain or sewer. Even then you may not have solved your problem for long. Then the roots need to be pulled out or chopped up and removed/disposed of.

Drain piping can usually be cleaned by removing the J-bend on the trap below the fixture. This tends to loosen rather than pack down the stoppage. Cup it tightly over the drain and plunge it vigorously several times. When using a garbage disposal, always let sufficient cold water run to carry the particles down and into the main line to prevent buildup in the smaller waste lines. Not only that, but buildup often makes drain pipes smell awful. Coffee grounds, egg shells, etc add to this accumulation layer until the pipe becomes impassible. As the water cools it proceeds down the drain and leaves the fatty deposits along the piping.

Kitchen sink stoppages are usually caused by liquid fats, emulsified by warm soapy dishwater and then carried through the drainpipes. The most often clogged drain is the kitchen sink. This bacteria-enzyme drain cleaner among other things contains viable bacteria cultures on a bran fiber carrier. The regular use of a product such as Roebic K-67 can help prevent slow drains and stoppages. Physical removal of hair is best.

Assuming the drainage lines were piped properly, tubs and showers usually have hair as the main cause of their stoppages. Overall, Plumbers probably get more calls to open clogged drains than any other service. Please do read the directions on the box before using. Follow the directions on the container which for most applications is simply adding a few capfuls of the bacteria-enzyme into a warm water container, waiting until all the powder has dissolved, and then simply pouring into the drain, etc.

K-67 bacterial drain and trap cleaner with patented Roetech bacteria is safe and effective to use. We offer K-67 with patented granular Roetech bacteria instead of other brands because we believe this to be one of the best and safest drain cleaning products and certainly a great value. We are your best source on the Internet for quality, value-priced plumbing products. And no bathroom is complete without a quality, professional plumber's plunger.

Drain maintenance is a key factor in keeping your drains clog-free and keeping those stinky drain smells away. Bacterial Drain and Trap Cleaners, safe for drains, garbage disposals, drain and sewer piping, and septic systems. Contains sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide. Will not harm garbage disposals or septic tanks and is safe on all pipes. Drain Cleaner Thick liquid industrial strength drain opener with twice the active ingredients of regular strength drain openers. Are chemical drain cleaners safe for household pipes? When clear, run hot water to flush away any remaining particles from the clog. Try plunging again if the drain is still sluggish. Force the plunger handle down powerfully numerous times. The petroleum jelly helps to create a tighter seal, thereby producing greater suction. Apply a thick layer of petroleum jelly to the rim of the plunger. The water helps to force the obstruction out of the way and lets you know when you succeed in pushing the clog out.



Block the overflow holes, other drains in adjacent sinks, or any other openings by stuffing wet rags into the holes. Keep the following things in mind while using a plunger. Besides chemical drain cleaners, you can also use a plunger to unclog a drain. After using the chemical, pour plenty of water in the pipes. You should always choose a drain cleaner which is safe for your septic system because some chemicals kill the bacterias in the septic tanks and the entire process comes to a halt causing more damage than repair.

These cleaners contain harsh chemicals, so wear eye protection and rubber gloves to protect your eyes and skin. You can use a chemical drain cleaner to open a slow-moving drain but make sure to read and follow the directions on the bottle. Here are some tips that you can use when trying to solve various types of drain problems. However, clogged drains, while inconvenient and messy, are usually easy enough to correct on your own. You dread another costly visit from the plumber. As the pool of water collects around the drain, you get a sinking feeling in your stomach.

Don't look down the drain after pouring a chemical. Mixing an acid and an alkali cleaner can cause an explosion. Alkalis cut grease; acids dissolve soap and hair. Read labels and match cleaners with clogs. Never use a chemical cleaner in a garbage disposal. It won't clear the blockage and you'll face another problem-how to get rid of the caustic water.

Don't use a chemical cleaner if the blockage is total, especially if the fixture is filled with water. Wear rubber gloves to prevent the chemical from burning your skin. Never use a plunger if a chemical cleaner is present in the drain; you risk splashing caustic water on yourself. Whenever you use chemicals, do so with caution and in a well-ventilated room. If water is draining somewhat, but plunging has failed to open the drain completely, you may want to try using a drain cleaner. Though routine use of chemical drain cleaners to prevent clogs may eventually damage your pipes, these cleaners can be helpful in opening clogged drains. Repeat the plunging two or three times before giving up. Use 15 to 20 forceful strokes, holding the plunger upright and pumping vigorously. Insert the plunger into the water at an angle so no air remains trapped under it. Block off all other outlets with wet rags. Coat the rim of the plunger cup with petroleum jelly to ensure a tight seal.



Fill the clogged fixture with enough water to cover the plunger cup. Choose a plunger with a suction cup large enough to cover the drain opening completely. The plunger is a good drain-clearing tool, but it often fails to work because it's incorrectly used. Determine if the clog is close to the sink by checking the other drains in your home. To check, remove and thoroughly clean the sink pop-up stopper or strainer. Run or pour scalding water down the drain to break up grease buildups. Be alert to the warning signs of a sluggish drain. It's always best to prevent clogs before they happen.



Frequently the drain works better after snaking than the customer ever recalls it draining before. Skip contributing to the industry and use what will work. There are also some air burst drain cleaners where an aerosol can, charges behind a diaphragm with air pressure and then the diaphragm ruptures allowing the air pressure charge to blast down the drain to jar the clog loose. Some are actually supposed to open a clogged drain within a couple of hours. If any Drain products are to be used I would recommend the bacteria and enzyme treatments. I treat every drain the same where I assume the worst chemicals are present. Most people lie to you even though the empty bottle is there and you can smell the drain cleaner as well as feel its slipperiness on your gloved hands. The bleach has ruined the colouring of shirts and the acid has eaten holes in them. I have frequently snaked a line in which these chemicals were used only to see my snake rust very badly an hour after use. The Best Chemical Drain Cleaners & Drain Care Products. Both the Caustic and Acid based drain cleaners are corrosive and may damage metal pipes, drain trim finishes and even the snake the plumber eventually uses after a lack of success with the chemicals. If Sulphuric Acid is used in combination with caustic drain cleaners can cause a violent chemical reaction and in the case of bleach based drain cleaners cause the release of Chlorine Gas.

The chemical bases of industrial drain cleaners fall into several different chemical families and may react violently with each other or, release toxic fumes. Sometimes there are several different brands. The only tried and true way to clean a drain is with a mechanical cleaning using a snake or, high pressure jet to clean the drain and restore it to its original diameter. The drain cleaning products may succeed in opening a small hole through a clog or strip the soap scum and conditioner build up off a hair clog the clear drain is temporary or, slightly better at best when it comes to results

Some of the newer Natural products are using citrus based cleaners in their products. Even the large drain industrial cleaning companies are offering these Green products to increase profits and get their share. In recent years others have come out with Bio Drain Products that offer claims of bacteria and enzymes eating the sludge in the pipes restoring them to the original outside diameter. Banners adorn the bottles with words like Commercial Grade Professional Strength & Industrial Strength each attempting to show they are stronger than the other brands on the label. The marketing efforts are phenomenal as each manufacturer vies for a larger market share of the millions. The chemical drain cleaning industry is big business that by some estimates we spend $150M a year on drain cleaning products and drain maintenance products in the US. Every home is different, but this basic cleaning supply list is a good starting point. Rid your home of grime and harsh chemicals by cleaning with these natural items. Chemical cleaners rarely work on stubborn clogs


When the two reactants interact they create mostly inactive material, salts and water, and the amount of reactants will determine the output pH of the reaction. Baking soda is alkaline, and vinegar is acidic. Pouring baking soda followed by vinegar down a drain can be used to unclog drains. Boiling water can also be used to clear drains that are clogged by soap and hair. This should only be carried out by a competent engineer with jet of water up to 4000 psi and will also clean the drain so blockage is less likely to reoccur. Accelerated gas may instantly clear the clog, in contrast to chemical solutions that typically take minutes or hours to work. The "air-burst" accelerates the gas to a high velocity, creating enough force to physically dislodge clogs. The fifth type of drain cleaner uses forcibly accelerated CO2 , air or other gas to rupture a membrane. Consumer Product Safety Commission, despite much debate during the last few decades. These acidic cleaners are often the only products that will effectively dissolve paper, rags, sanitary napkins, and similar blockages. These are very corrosive and hazardous if misused, and often create intense heat that can cause the water in the drain to boil, creating a violent eruption from the drain. A different type includes a liquid solutions containing sulphuric acid, usually in concentrations around 95 percent.

These products are also completely safe and effective for use in toilets, bathtub/showers, garbage disposals, and septic systems. While most of these are generally used as routine maintenance for proper flow, as they are incapable of clearing a completely clogged drainpipe, bacterial enzymatic products of very high concentrations are emerging which can clear impassable clogs in less than one hour

The third type are the liquid solutions containing bacteria cultures and enzymes that gradually eat away the organic material on pipes that cause slow drains. In some patented cleaners, aluminium turnings are added to the solid hydroxide, where they react with water in the drain to heat the caustic mixture to the boiling point. These are also used for hair and grease clogs. A more concentrated caustic drain cleaner consists of solid granules of sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.

The hypothetical reason behind this foaming action is to coat the entire inside of the drain pipe and remove more of whatever substances might form a clog. Other caustic mixtures come as two-part cleaners that are mixed as they are poured in the drain opening. These are used to dissolve grease and hair clogs. The most common type are liquid caustic solutions containing sodium hypochlorite NaOCl , sodium hydroxide , or potassium hydroxide in concentrations up to 50% percent. There are six major types of drain cleaners sold today. If collection is not available and if you are connected to a sanitary sewer or municipal sewer treatment, you may dispose of unwanted portions of drain cleaner by flushing down the drain with plenty of water. Take unused product to a hazardous household waste collection centre. The product may still be poisonous if inhaled in heavy concentrations or swallowed. Be sure to tell them what product was used in the drain so that they may adequately protect themselves. If a chemical drain cleaner has done nothing to help your clog and you still have standing water, then there is no reasonable choice except to call a professional to fix the clogged and now contaminated drain.

The combination of chemicals can produce toxic gas or become reactive and blow out of the sink and on to you. Also, do not add other cleaners to the drain following the use of a commercial drain cleaner. This would only invite splashback. If you have used a chemical drain cleaner and the clog still exists, Do not try to clear the drain with a plunger or pressurized drain opener. Also effective, particularly in preventing clogs, are many brands of enzymatic cleaners. Boiling water or a handful of baking soda and half cup of vinegar poured down the drain weekly is at least as effective as a chemical drain cleaner and much, much safer for you and the environment. If you are on a septic system, you should know that drain cleaners are hard on your system as they kill the microbial bacteria which are necessary to the workings of your septic tank. These chemicals work by eating away materials, including your skin if it should come in contact. Common ingredients in drain cleaners include lye or sulphuric acid.

Chemical drain cleaners are extremely corrosive and dangerous to use. Learn about how our natural drain cleaner and grease trap products work safely in your home and on our planet. And Drainbo Natural Drain Cleaner is easy to use, economical and has a fresh lemon scent. And we are proud to say that our product not only works but Drainbo is nontoxic, all natural and completely safe to the environment. That's why we created Drainbo Natural Drain Cleaner. The Drainbo Team is a team of experts that have been solving your drain cleaning and plumbing issues since 1947.

Drainbo offers quality products that are all natural, nontoxic and 100% safe to the environment. Andreson Hill: Quite good points are listed here. To get answers for all your plumbing queries, visit eLocalPlumbers.com and learn about anything, from how to clear a clogged drain pipe to how to replace bathtub with shower. This way you can prevent clogging up of your drains. You can always use strainers for your kitchen and bathroom sinks to prevent the entry of materials like hair, soap, pins and other insoluble objects. When cleared, pour hot water to remove any left over particles. Continue this for at least 2 minutes. Move the plunger in the downward direction several times. This will help to remove the clog with a greater force. You can also apply petroleum jelly on the rim of the plunger. You first need to block all the holes and other drains by putting in some cloth or other stuff.

Follow these tips to make plunging more effective. Apart from chemicals, one of the most trusted tools for unclogging drains, the plunger, can usually clear the blockage if its not too far into the main drain. After following the directions on the bottle, remember to run plenty of water to flush the chemicals out of your pipes. Some cleaners contain chemicals that can disrupt the bacterial action of your septic system.

Also make sure that drain cleaner is safe for your septic system by reading the warnings on the back. It is always advisable to wear rubber gloves for safety. Do read all the instructions before use. But you should be very careful while handling them as they can be very dangerous. One solution to unclog a drain is to use chemicals. Below is some information that can be of your help while dealing with any such situation. You can easily do it without calling any professional plumber. But unclogging a drain is not that difficult as it sounds. Clogging of drains is one of the most common plumbing issues at home. From Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, Goodway equipment is used in over 125 countries and on every continent, including Antarctica.

Achieving this high quality of performance is the shared responsibility of each employee in every department." Today, Goodway products span the globe. Since its earliest days, the company has built a reputation for manufacturing the highest quality cleaning systems in the world. Goodway Technologies Corporation was founded in 1966 by Per K. We will also help you find the drain cleaner that best serves your needs. Goodway has a drain cleaner to serve all of your different drain cleaner applications, including our Pulse Jetter Drain Cleaner. A Goodway drain cleaner features heavy-duty construction of heavy gauge steel, stainless steel and aluminium for reliability and long life. Goodway has the drain cleaners and accessories to help with your commercial and industrial maintenance, whether it is a power jetter drain cleaner or a cable drain cleaner. Pulse jetters are very useful for preventive drain maintenance programs where regular, scheduled drain cleaning is performed to keep drainage systems operating efficiently without the risks and dangers associated with chemical drain cleaners. Special nozzles are available for going around corners, piercing blockages, and propelling the nozzle down the pipe using water pressure. Their pumps are equipped with a special valve that allows the operator to disable one pump cylinder, thereby creating pressure pulses that effectively break up blockages and assist in manoeuvring the nozzle through traps and tees.

Todays pulse jetters are specifically made to clean drains. Early pulse jetters were composed of a standard pressure washer of about 1000 PSI fitted with a drain cleaning hose and nozzle. Pulse jetters are an outgrowth of the pressure washer industry. They require significant training and can be dangerous in the hands of a novice. These are the types of machines used by professional plumbers and drain cleaning contractors. Other motor driven drain augers have a mechanism that feeds the cable into the drain as well as provide cable rotation. These units can deliver a large amount of torque and are capable of removing stubborn clogs - even tree roots.

With some motor driven drain augers, the cable is fed manually and the cable rotation is provided by the motor. Motor driven drain augers come in a variety of sizes and types ranging from those driven with a hand held electric drill to fully automated dolly-mounted units. They use a spring-like cable with various cleaning heads mounted on the end. Augers are useful for retrieving blockages that cannot be broken up or dissolved, such as fabric. Hand operated drain augers are useful for cleaning clogs in drains of sinks, showers and toilets. Also, many of the obstructions found in commercial drain systems are not organic in nature so they do not lend themselves to chemical cleaning. In addition, commercial drain cleaning applications frequently involve larger diameter piping which requires more aggressive cleaning methods. It is often necessary to reach a clog that is quite a distance from the cleaning access point.

In commercial and institutional facilities, drain systems are larger and more complex than in homes and mechanical drain cleaners are widely used. All manufacturers warnings and instructions must be closely followed. Most manufacturers warn of harm from skin or eye contact and swallowing even though enzymatic drain cleaners are non-corrosive. They do not produce thermal effects to the degree that the other chemical drain cleaners do. They are generally slower than acid, caustic and oxidizing cleaners and they only work on organic materials. They are formulated using bacterial cultures and enzyme preparations. Enzymatic drain cleaners metabolise materials in the blockage by means of biological and enzymatic chemical reactions. Oxidizing agents include peroxides, hypochlorites, chlorates and perchlorates and when they react with the blockage material, they acquire electrons from the organic compounds that make up the clog.

If swallowed - Drink water and do not induce vomiting Call a doctor or poison control centre. Eyes - Flush immediately with water for 15 minutes. If caustic drain cleaner is accidentally spilled on a person or it gets into the mouth or eyes, follow these first aid instructions: Skin - Wash immediately with copious amounts of water. Follow the manufacturer's directions for safe disposal. Store unused chemical in a container that has a child-proof closure. Caustic drain cleaners need to be located close to the blockage and be chemical reactive with the material forming the clog to perform well.



Powdered cleaners usually contain sodium hydroxide and aluminium particles which release small quantities of hydrogen gas. This aids in getting the cleaner to the clog. Liquid forms and are usually made of dissolved sodium hydroxide which makes them heavier than water. Caustic drain cleaners are available in both liquid and powder forms. With caustic drain cleaners, hydroxide ions cause the reaction in which alkaline chemicals convert grease into a water soluble soap-like substance. Caustic drain cleaners work similarly to acid drain cleaners in that they cause a reaction. Caustic drain cleaners typically contain caustic soda, sodium hydroxide, lye and other such compounds. If Swallowed Drink water and do not induce vomiting Call a doctor or poison control centre. Remove contact lenses after 5 minutes if applicable. Eyes Flush immediately with water for 15 minutes. If acid drain cleaner is accidentally spilled on a person or it gets into the mouth or eyes, follow these first aid instructions: Skin - Wash immediately with copious amounts of water.

Follow the manufacturers directions for safe disposal. Keep chemicals away from children and other unauthorized users. Store unused chemical in a container that has a child proof closure. Carefully follow all of the manufacturers instructions provided on the label and any enclosed literature. Acid drain cleaners are simply poured into the drain and allowed to sit for several minutes while they go to work. This includes wearing goggles or a face shield and rubber gloves. The use of personal protective equipment is recommended when handling acid drain cleaners. The chemical reaction between the acid and the blockage materials along with the heat released by the reaction serve to break down the blockage.

Acid drain cleaners typically contain sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid. The chemicals will remain on top of the clog and further increase the difficulty of removing the clog. Do not use chemical drain cleaner on a completely clogged drain. The mixture has the potential to be explosive. Mixing chemicals can be a dangerous concoction especially if you mix an alkali cleaner and an acid cleaner together. It is very important not to mix different types of drain cleaner.

This applies both during and after using chemical drain cleaner. Plungers have the potential to pull up the used chemicals which could spill on the operator. While operating with chemical drain cleaners, be sure to avoid using a plunger. If someone decided to turn on the disposal, chemicals could slash and cause bodily harm.

The chemicals can linger in the garbage disposal after the work was done on the drain. You should never use a chemical drain cleaner on a garbage disposal. After the operation, be sure to avoid the drain area as chemicals are likely to bubble up, which releases harmful fumes and liquids. It is highly suggested the user wear a pair of rubber gloves and protective goggles in case any chemicals splash out of the drain. When using the drain cleaner make sure you never come in physical contact with the chemicals. Handling a chemical drain cleaner with safety in mind will guarantee you can complete your task without getting hurt. A chemical drain cleaner, if used without caution, can be hazardous to the operator. Further, the use of chemical drain cleaners can be harmful to the environment as these toxic chemicals are flushed through the drainage system and eventually into the ground or well water. Additionally, chemical drain cleaners in high enough concentrations can harm the microbial bacteria necessary to help maintain septic systems. Chemical drain cleaners when used regularly can corrode or damage the plumbing connected to the drains. The toxic vapours from some of these chemical drain cleaners can also be harmful. These chemicals can be dangerous as they are generally skin irritants and can cause serious burns or blindness.

The chemical reaction caused by these chemical drain cleaners dissolves the materials that clog pipes and hinder proper drainage. Some ingredients commonly found in these drain cleaners include sulphuric acid and lye. These drain cleaners can be harmful and require careful handling and storage. Chemical drain cleaners use extremely corrosive chemicals to clean drains. The use of chemical drain cleaning is also not practical for an environment used mostly by children. Quick drain cleaning fixes like plunging are not a long-term solution.

Student toilets often overflow due to overstuffing, flushing of foreign objects, and running water. Frequent bathroom visits by students, as well as cafeterias' drainage needs, demand a well-operating drainage system, ensured by frequent drain cleaning. Schools also face unique challenges in maintaining optimum drainage capacity. Drain cleaning can prevent the buildup of large quantities of lint and bacteria that crystallize in the long drainpipe located in the basement. Here, there are usually many storage areas, water heaters, laundry services and central air conditioners. Another area of concern for many hotels is the basement. Drain cleaning must be done often before flooding occurs and damages carpets, floors, and ceilings. Therefore, it is critical that hotel staff have a preemptive drain cleaning program. Repeated maximization of drain capacity puts a strain on the system; increasing the possibility that flooding and/or poor drainage may occur. Hotels' drain systems experience a high volume of activity, which increases the likelihood that blockage issues will arise. This environment causes bacteria growth and corrosion, emphasizing the need for routine drain cleaning. Also, sinks often overflow, resulting in more contaminants being forced down floor drains.

In fact, it is not uncommon for commercial kitchens to perform prophylactic drain cleaning to prevent clogs before they happen. It is very important for staff in commercial kitchens to pay attention to the functioning of their drainage systems. Commercial kitchens face unique challenges in drain cleaning. Both can be remediated through drain cleaning, which restores the flow of water. These blockages often lead to slow-draining drains, and may ultimately result in flooding.

Drain cleaning will eliminate flushed materials, tree roots, and deposit buildup from the drainage system. Drain cleaning ensures that stagnant water, a breeding ground for germs and water contamination, is minimized. Regular monitoring and remediation of drain problems is a necessity to head off any blockage problems. For this reason, drain cleaning is important in any hospital maintenance plan. Sterile conditions in hospitals are critical to the success of patient treatment and recovery. Hospitals and many healthcare facilities require the professional use of a cable auger to ensure proper drain cleaning. Also consider that urinals and toilets can back up and introduce human waste and unsanitary bacteria into the floor drain. Health and fitness clubs, campgrounds and day-use recreation areas require properly functioning sink and floor drains for dependable operation of showers, bathrooms, locker rooms and outdoor faucets.



So proper preventative maintenance of these drainage systems is critical. The cost of a blockage, both in terms of financial costs and customer service, can be enormous. Livery cleaning services, dry cleaners and coin-operated laundries produce an extremely high volume of liquids that contain soaps, chemicals, hair and other random solids, all of which place high demands on a drainage system. Consistent, periodic maintenance is recommended to keep drains in their optimal operating condition. Manufacturing floors can also see a large build-up of discarded scraps and packaging material, much of which will eventually find its way down the floor drains. With weekly and even daily mopping of floors in some warehouses and storage facilities, sludge and solids can accumulate over time and eventually cause a drain clog. One of the most common causes of clogged floor drains is mop water, which contains a substantial amount of contaminants. For larger drainage systems, it's advised that you use a long scope or video camera to periodically observe the condition of the pipes from the inside. In large commercial or industrial facilities, mop water, which may contain a high amount of suspended solids, can often lead to clogs. Septic tanks should be inspected regularly by a professional septic contractor.

If possible, try to replace shrubs or trees that could grow roots near an underground, lateral sewer line. If roots are potential problems for a lateral sewer line, periodic maintenance is required keep the line clear of debris. Don't flush heavy sanitary paper products, like napkins and paper towels, down the toilet as they can clog the toilet or sewer. And it's a good idea to periodically pour boiling water down the drain to flush out hardened materials. Garbage disposals should be operated with ample cold water so food doesn't get stuck on the sides. You should also avoid dumping coffee grounds down the sink. Household grease and oil should be poured into containers and thrown in the garbage. Although bacteria in a sewage system are very effective at breaking down solid waste, they will not break down grease.

Never pour grease down a drain as it will stick to the sides of the pipes and eventually reduce their effective inside diameter. The base of the drain opening should also be cleaned. This may require removing the stopper and rod from under the base of the sink. First, sink-stoppers need to be cleaned regularly and freed of matted hair on their bases.

Many clogs can be prevented with basic precautionary measures and good habits. They will eventually overwhelm the pipe and the system, causing grease, paper products and any other debris that passes through it to become clogged and cause a stoppage. One of the major causes of underground clogs is roots, which tend to grow toward sewer lines that have deteriorated or have been compromised by movement. But even these materials can become severely clogged. The best surfaces for proper drainage are smooth ones, like PVC and copper. Once they become lodged inside pipes, not only do they fail to deteriorate, they will often expand over time making a tricky drainage problem even worse. Both cast iron and galvanized steel can corrode, creating ideal conditions for a clog.

Rough interior surfaces in pipes are more likely to clog than smooth ones. For professional plumbers and maintenance technicians, the pulse-jet drain cleaner is a powerful and safe solution for a variety of stoppages. But stubborn clogs won't typically yield to household items like baking soda, vinegar and rock salt. When clogs do occur, there are some conventional home remedies that can be applied with varying degrees of success. Oftentimes, in large commercial facilities where a number of contaminants can wind up in a floor drain, a malodor is the first warning sign of a clog. Toilet bowls will sometimes make a gurgling noise while flushing that will indicate a flow restriction. Your drains may be telling you that they're restricted long before a complete stoppage occurs. These are a variation on the common pressure washer, with the addition of a pulse valve that allows the operator to deliver pulses of pressure to break up the clog. The pressurized air forces the water column in front of it into the clog dislodging it.



The operator simply pumps the cylinder up to the desired pressure, securely fits the nozzle into the drain opening and pulls the trigger releasing the pressurized air into the pipe. This consists of a hand operated air pump connected to a storage cylinder equipped with a pressure gage with a set of interchangeable nozzles to fit various drain openings. Another drain cleaner commonly used by maintenance professionals is the kinetic water ram. These machines are very effective and can remove just about any clog, including tree roots, but they require training for safe and successful operation.. There are also motorized "snake" machines that can be fed deep into the drainage piping. Hand operated drain cleaners, or snakes, such as the closet auger, are another choice for removing clogs. If that fails, a professional plumber is usually brought in .Another drain clearing device is the simple plunger, also known as the "plumber's helper", which can be very effective at opening up clogged sink and toilet drains. Home owners typically turn to liquid drain cleaners as a first remedy to unclog drains.

The simplest method is to just pour very hot water down the drain in hopes of dissolving the clog. Several drain cleaning methods are available today to unclog drains of all types. Oftentimes, a quality pulse-jet drain cleaner will pay for itself in cost savings from hiring professional help or paying for a rental unit. More powerful, cart-mounted units are available for heavy-duty clogs and industrial use. Compact units can deliver up to 600 PSI of pressure and are not much larger than a briefcase. It's ideal for all kinds of pipe materials, especially older, delicate pipes because the pulsing action of pressurized water is powerful but not abrasive like mechanical snakes or caustic like chemical cleaners.

Special nozzles change the orientation and shape of the burst to suit the bends of a pipe or type of clog. A pulse-jet drain cleaner uses powerful bursts of pressurized water to loosen clogged material while simultaneously flushing it out of the system. Whether in a hotel, restaurant, hospital, or school, proper drain function is critical to ensuring sanitary conditions. Drain cleaning and maintenance is essential for commercial and institutional facilities. Standards exist addressing these potential hazards with recommendations for proper and safe use, packaging and labeling recommendations, and personal protection recommendations.

Hazardous and toxic gases may be generated, as well as spattering and/or eruptions. They are reactive with human tissue in a similar manner as to the organic materials in drain blockages. Implications Chemical and enzymatic drain cleaners are potentially dangerous to use. Addition of bleach, disinfectants, solvents, or other chemicals may be harmful to the established bacterial colony. Most treatments require additional applications in order to establish a colony; because bacteria are regularly washed out as the drain is used, such treatments recommend monthly maintenance applications. Enzymatic treatments generally require at least one overnight application, during which the drain cannot be used.

Carbonates in concrete and acid drain cleaners may react to liberate carbon dioxide gas. The oxidation of organic materials may result in the formation of gases such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and/or organic gases. The mixing of caustic acid drain cleaners containing sodium hypochlorite with other household chemicals may result in the generation of toxic gases such as chloramine or chlorine. Reactions which generate gases may result in pressure buildup and possible eruptions because of volumetric differences between liquids and gases. However, chemical texts often use the same term for nearly pure solutions.

Standards often recommend using the term "concentrated" for aqueous solutions as a warning for potential health effects or injuries to tissue. The addition of water to a concentrated caustic or acid may also result in boiling and spattering of the resulting solution; if the caustic or acid is slowly and carefully added to water, this effect is minimized. If the chemical remains unreacted in the piping system, persons subsequently attempting to clear the blockage by mechanical means may unknowingly have potential of exposure to the chemical. This "heat of solution" may be considerable and variable, depending on the initial and final solution concentrations. Dilution of concentrated caustics and acids may also generate heat. These reactions generally result in the formation of a salt and water, but may generate extreme heat and, consequently, the liquids may spatter or erupt from the drain. The introduction of acid drain cleaners into pipes containing caustic drain cleaners may result in vigorous acid-base neutralization reactions. Users occasionally attempt to clear a blockage by using more than one product. If a chemical drain cleaner does not remove the obstruction in the piping system, the chemical may remain unreacted in the piping system.

Acid drain cleaners can corrode or etch stainless steel, damage aluminium fixtures, and may crack porcelain. Combined heat and chemical reaction may damage old, corroded pipes. Reactions And Incompatibilities The heat liberated by chemical drain cleaners may soften plastic pipes. National Standard for Hazardous Industrial Chemicals - Precautionary Labeling," ANSI Z129.1-1988, addresses the preparation of precautionary labeling of hazardous chemicals used under industrial occupational settings.



The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health The "Occupational Health Guideline for Sodium Hydroxide," "Occupational Health Guideline for Sulphuric Acid," and "NIOSH Recommended Standard for Occupational Exposure to Sodium Hydroxide" address work place usage and exposures, labeling and warnings, personnel protective equipment, and work practices to reduce exposures to these chemicals. The Association of Chemical Producers "Minimum Standards for Sulphuric Acid Drain Cleaners" addresses labeling, packaging, formulation, and other concerns related to sulphuric acid drain cleaner products. Consumer Product Safety Commission Standards 16 CFR 1700.14, "Substances Requiring Special Packaging," provides guidelines for the packaging of household chemicals containing ten percent or more of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, or sulphuric acid. Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standards 29 CFR 1910.1000, "Air Contaminants," addresses work place exposures to a number of hazardous and toxic substances including hydrogen chloride gas , sodium hydroxide contained in caustic drain cleaners, and sulphuric acid mists. The application of these requirements is often based on place , method of use, and person. Standards Several guidelines, standards and codes exist for the various classifications of drain cleaners or for the specific chemical constituents of the cleaners. Reformulations and introduction of slower reacting methods have reduced the potential for some hazards at the expense of the potential loss of effectiveness in dissolving the blockage material. Enzymatic drain cleaners are less likely to acutely harm the human body by direct contact with the skin and/or eyes than chemical drain cleaners. Chemical drain cleaners are generally more dense than water and tend to sink to a lowest possible point. Chemical drain cleaners may damage plumbing and surrounding surfaces. Chemicals may cause burns, react with materials other than those in the blockage, and produce other undesirable physical effects. These reactions may be of different mechanisms, but have potential to be vigorous and liberate gases.



Chemical removal methods rely upon generation of heat and reaction between the drain cleaner and blockage material. Implications Removal of pipeline obstructions or restrictions may be performed by mechanical or chemical removal methods. Although enzymatic drain cleaners are non corrosive, most labels warn of harm from swallowing, skin/eye contact, and inhalation. Enzymatic drain cleaners tend to have a short shelf-life which may be attributed to enzymatic interaction aggravated by exposure to heat. Generally, chemicals contained in water soluble polymeric beads decompose the clogging material into chemical units more suitable to enzymatic action. Recent formulations of enzymatic drain cleaners have been developed to better treat hair and cellulosic blockages. Past formulations were developed to liberate gases ; the effervescent action allowed the active enzyme to more effectively penetrate the blockage. Many enzymatic drain cleaners originated in the biological treatment industry and have only recently entered the consumer market place. They are non corrosive and presumably nonpathogenic, although past surveys have indicated the presence of salmonellae in these drain cleaners. Enzymatic drain cleaners usually contain dried products consisting of enzyme preparations, bacterial cultures, and fillers. Enzymatic Drain Cleaners Enzymatic drain cleaners utilize biological/enzymatic forms of chemical reactions to "metabolise" materials in the blockage and therefore clear the blockage. Oxidizing materials such as sodium hypochlorite are often added to the formulation of caustic drain cleaners to enhance performance.

This oxidation-reduction reaction may potentially liberate heat and gases. Cellulosic and other organic compounds composing the blockage material may act as reducing agents in contact with the oxidizing material and can react vigorously at ambient temperatures. Oxidizing agents include nitrates, chlorates, perchlorates, hypochlorites and peroxides. An oxidizing agent is defined as the agent which acquires electrons and becomes reduced, while a reducing agent is the agent which loses electrons and becomes oxidized. Oxidizing Drain Cleaners Oxidation and reduction are associated reactions; generally, whenever one substance loses electrons, another substance picks them up. Caustic drain cleaners should be placed in close proximity to the blockage material and must be chemically reactive with the blockage material to perform satisfactorily. Solid sodium hydroxide adsorbs moisture and therefore may create its own blockage by forming a solid mass before it dissolves in the water retained in the piping system. These aluminium particles react with water to liberate small quantities of hydrogen gas; this reaction liberates more heat and adds force to the unblocking effect of the drain cleaner. Granular forms are usually composed of sodium hydroxide and often contain aluminium particles. Aqueous solutions are usually composed of dissolved sodium hydroxide, and are therefore denser than water.

Caustic drain cleaners are commercially prepared in both aqueous and granular forms. Table 2 depicts the relationship between hydronium ion concentration, hydroxide ion concentration, pH, and pOH. Higher pH values indicate higher concentrations of hydroxide ions and greater potential for vigorous reaction, depending upon the chemical composition of the blockage materials. An indication of the measure of the concentration of hydroxide ions is a caustic's pOH. In addition to the mechanisms associated with acid drain cleaners, the alkaline chemical converts grease into a water-soluble soap-like material. The term "alkalinity" is used to describe the degree of caustic properties associated with the solution.



Caustic drain cleaners react in a similar method as acid drain cleaners, except hydroxide ions provide the driving mechanism for the reaction. Caustic Drain Cleaners A caustic, or base is generally defined as any substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ion in aqueous solutions. Repeated dilutions with water will result in pH values approaching neutrality. This phenomenon is dependent on the ionization potential of the acid.

The pH of a diluted acid is not directly proportional to the original concentration of hydronium ions over all possible dilutions. An increase in the pH value by exactly one unit corresponds to a ten-fold increase in the concentration of hydronium ions. Lower pH values indicate higher concentrations of hydronium ions and greater potential for vigorous reactions, depending upon the chemical composition of the blockage materials. The pH values of some common liquids are summarized in Table 1. An indication of the measure of the concentration of hydronium ions is an acid's pH. Therefore, to be effective, acid drain cleaners should provide sufficient quantities of hydronium ion, the blockage material should be mutually reactive with the hydronium ions, and the physical conditions should favour the reaction. The heat generated is usually sufficient to locally liquefy congealed grease. The hydronium ions may act on the blockage materials in "displacement" reactions , neutralization, or by oxidation-reduction reactions. Acid drain cleaners work via chemical reaction between the hydronium ion and the blockage material and liberation of heat as the solution is diluted by water in the pipes. For example, hydrogen chloride gas when dissolved in water will react with the water to form hydronium ions; aqueous solutions of hydrogen chloride are therefore referred to as hydrochloric acid. Because of their chemical reactivity, coupled with the often unknown contents and configurations of plumbing systems, improper application of chemical drain cleaners can result in unexpected chemical reactions, splashes, and other effects which may result in personal injury and/or property damage. Chemical cleaners work via their reactive chemical nature; enzymatic cleaners work via slower biological/digestive type reactions.

Chemical and enzymatic drain cleaners have the appeal of being potentially easy to use, quick in their degradation of the blockage, and often are less expensive than mechanical drain cleaning equipment. Such materials are normally deposited in drains, pipes, and sewer lines, but the design of piping systems, the quantity of material introduced into the line, and flow problems allow the occurrence of blockages. These blockages are often the result of an accumulation of human wastes, hair, paper products, grease, soap, and other foreign materials.